10-610 monochromator x-ray source anode replacement procedure

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This post will show how to replace the 10-610 monochromator X-ray source anode and filaments.  The 10-610 monochromator X-ray source is used in conjunction with the 10-410 or 10-420 monochromator.   When replacing the anode you should also replace both filaments and the deionizer cartridge (located in the 16-0XX heat exchanger).

Once the anode and filaments have been replaced the vacuum chamber needs to be baked out and the new filament and anode need to be out gassed and conditioned.  The monochromator may also need to be adjusted slightly to optimize the counts with the new anode and filaments.

Please read the entire procedure first, then watch the picture slideshow at the bottom of the post.

Anode replacement procedure

Vent the chamber.

Remove the water lines from the source.

Remove the safety cover from the source (3 screws).

Remove the high voltage cable

Remove the sixteen 5/16” bolts on the 6” flange and remove 10-610 mono source from the monochromator.

Next, remove the screw that connects the ground wire to the manifold.

Remove the Teflon block from the source base (2 spline cap head screws).

Remove the Teflon block from the source base.  Twist it as you slide it off the anode.

Loosen the nut on the high voltage connector (3/4” open end wrench) and remove the high voltage connector.

Remove the silicone rubber insulator and spring.  The spring makes electrical contact between the high voltage connector and the anode flange.

Remove the three spline cap head screws that hold the base to the flange and remove base from the flange. Note, this is optional as the base can stay on for bake out.

Remove the two screws that hold the filament cover on and remove the filament cover.

Remove the two screws that hold the filament cover support on and remove the filament cover support.  Note the position of the covers as you take them out as they need to go back the same way.

Remove the 6 cap head screws that hold the anode to the base and lift the old anode out of the source housing.

Separate the old anode from the anode flange.

Install a new O-ring on the new anode bottom and slide the anode flange into the new anode. There are 4 O-rings in the anode kit.  The anode flange forces the cooling water to the tip of the anode.

Use a new copper gasket and mount the new anode onto the anode flange.  Use care as you slide the anode in not to touch the sides of the anode housing (like the old game Operation).  The anode surface is coated with a thin layer of aluminum on a copper substrate.  Any contact with the top of the anode surface can cause little dents in the anode surface that can cause arc points.  Tighten the 6 cap head screws very lightly as the anode will need to be adjusted.

Using plastic tweezers or needle nose pliers, carefully rotate the anode until it is parallel to the filament housing. The idea is that the anode should be parallel to the anode housing and also centered so that there is a maximum and equal distance between the anode and the housing in order to prevent arcing.

Once the anode is parallel, tighten the six cap head screws on the base all the way down.

center the anode

center the anode

Next, if necessary loosen the 4 screws on the copper pedestal and move it to center the anode for maximum distance between the anode and the filament housing. If available,   you can use the anode alignment tool to help center the anode and then tighten the 4 screws on the base of the copper pedestal.

anode alignment tool

anode alignment tool

The anode surface should be the same level as the fence that is between the filaments and the anode.   If not loosen the spline head cap screw that secures the filament housing to the copper pedestal. You can use the anode alignment tool, a straight edge or just eye ball it.

Filament replacement procedure

The filaments are coated with Yttrium so that they can provide sufficient electrons for emission at a lower filament operating current. Be careful when handling the filaments so that you do not knock off any of the coating on the filaments.

Loosen the filament clamp screws on the large 7mm (diffused) area filament and remove the old filament. Note that the large 7mm filament is closest to the filament connector and wires.

Carefully insert the new filament into the filament clamps and lightly tighten them.  The filament should be centered with respect to the anode and the top of the filament should be even with the top of the filament cavity (level with the anode guard). It should also be parallel to the anode guard and centered in the filament cavity. If not, remove the filament and carefully bend the legs as needed. Once the filament height and centering is correct, firmly tighten the filament clamp screws.

Repeat this procedure for the small 2mm (focused) filament.

Install the filament cover base and cover.  Note that the little cut out goes over the 2mm filament.

Condition the anode and filaments procedure

Once the new anode and filaments have been installed onto the 10-610 monochromator X-ray source, the source needs to be baked out and then outgassed and conditioned.

First, bake out the system.

Next, outgas the filaments

Finally, condition the anode

Bake out the system

Follow the bake out procedure in the PHI manual or search for the RBD Techspot blog- Bake-out procedure to improve base vacuum.

The O-rings on the mono source, HV connector and silicone rubber insulator and Teflon block are all removed from the 10-610 mono source before bake out.  After bake out, use a little bit of vacuum grease on the O-rings to help provide a tight water seal when the Teflon block is replaced.

Replace the deionizer cartridge in the 16-0XX heat exchanger.  PHI recommends that the deionizer cartridge be replaced each time the anode is replaced to help make sure that the water does not react with the anode.

Outgas the filaments

Prior to outgassing the filaments the system should have been baked out and the mono source housing and water lines reassembled.  The deionizer cartridge should also have been replaced. The system should be cool and the base pressure in the low 10-9 to low 10-10 Torr range.

The filaments need to be initially outgassed slowly in order to prevent warping and also to set them.

Select the Outgas/ACT mode on the X-ray source controller.

Select the 2mm focused filament and ramp the current up to 5 amps in increments of .5 amps over a period of 2 to 5 minutes.   Wait for the outgassing to subside somewhat as indicated by the ion gauge.

Set the 2mm focused filament current to zero amps and then repeat the procedure with the 7mm diffused filament. Once up to 5 amps, let the 7mm diffused filament sit there for 4 to 8 hours or until the base vacuum returns to the low 10-9 Torr range.  Then set the filament current to zero and turn off the Outgas/ACT mode on the X-ray source controller.

Degas the Anode

Set the beam voltage to 500V and turn it on.

On the X-ray source controller, select the Outgas/ACT mode

Select the 2mm focused filament (Mg filament on a 32-095/6)

Slowly increase the amps to 3.5 and then monitor the anode current (emission current) meter.

VERY SLOWY increase the filament current until you get 1mA of emission current. Do not exceed 5 amps of filament current. Do not exceed 2mA of emission current.

Monitor the ion gauge vacuum reading and wait until the outgassing comes back down then slowly increase the beam voltage to 1 kV. If necessary reduce the filament current to keep the emission below 2mA.

In steps of 500V bring the high voltage up to 10kV while adjusting the filament current as needed to keep the emission current below 2mA. Do this over a period of 30 minutes to several hours, depending on how much the anode outgasses. For best results keep the vacuum in the chamber in the low 10-9 Torr range. The higher the pressure from outgassing, the more likely an arc will occur.

Once the anode has been outgassed to 10kV, turn the filament current to zero and set the high voltage to zero. Then switch to the other filament and repeat the procedure.

Condition the high voltage

Make sure that the Out/Act button is OFF and that the filament current is set to zero on both filaments.

SLOWLY bring the high voltage up to 10kV while monitoring the vacuum chamber ion gauge.

Step the high voltage up increments of 500V until you get to 16.5kV. When you see some signs of outgassing (the pressure in the vacuum chamber will come up) then back down the high voltage a little bit and wait until the vacuum recovers.

Once you are able to get to 16.5 kV with no arcing, let the anode sit there for at least 20 minutes.

The X-ray source is now ready for normal operation.   For best results, start at a low power and kV such as 100 watts and 10kV.   You can step up both the power and the kV over a period of a few hours based on how much outgassing you see when operating in this mode. Once you are up to full power of 300 watts and 15kv the X-ray source can be brought up to full power quickly.

Note that the maximum power that should be applied to the 2mm focused filament is 350 watts and the maximum power that should be applied to the 7mm diffused filament is 600 watts.  Personally I do not recommend more than 300 watts on either anode.  If you can get by with a lower wattage (such as 250) then both the filaments and anode will last longer.

It is also recommended that you inspect the 10-610 mono anode any time you vent your chamber for maintenance, or at least once a year. If you see indications of melting in the center of the anode you should replace the anode.  Otherwise it will eventually develop a water leak and cause potentially catastrophic damage to system components and substantial downtime.

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Loading PHI specimen mounts

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Loading PHI specimen mounts

This post explains the mechanics involved with loading PHI specimen mounts used on most of the older to current Physical Electronics surface analysis systems.

There are a number of different sizes and shapes of specimen (sample) mounts and they all use the same basic mounting and docking scheme.

The most common sample mount used on older Physical Electronics XPS and AES surface analysis systems is the Model 190 flat one inch diameter specimen holder shown below.

Model 190 sample mount

Model 190 sample mount

The basic concept is that there are two grooves on the outside of the sample mounts which are used to transfer the sample mount into the vacuum chamber, and to dock the sample mount to the specimen stage. The transfer arm has a fork on the end which connects to the bottom groove on the specimen mount and the specimen stage has three clips which snap into the bottom groove and hold the specimen mount to the stage.   The top groove is used to hold the specimen mount while mounting it to the transfer arm fork or in the case of scanning auger systems, to transfer to the parking attachment.

one_inch_sample_mount_from_side

Grooves on 190 specimen mount

 

 

 

 

Clips on specimen stage

Clips on specimen stage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are two essential steps required to successfully dock and removing the specimen holders;

  1. Make sure that the specimen stage is perfectly centered under the transfer arm fork.
  2. The specimen stage center clip needs to be lined up with the notch on the transfer arm fork.
Line up intro fork notch to clip

Line up intro fork notch to clip

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

line up sample over specimen stage

line up sample over specimen stage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once you have the location of the specimen stage micrometers for the load and un-load positions you can make some marks on the specimen stage micrometers so that you will be able to easily re-position the specimen stage for loading and unloading.

 Loading PHI sample mounts procedure:

  1. After you attach the sample that you want to analyze to the specimen holder (using screws and clips or carbon/silver tape). Back-fill the intro with dry nitrogen and mount the specimen holder to the sample fork. There are 2 different types of specimen mount holding tools as shown below. Or you can use a clean needle nose pliers. Pull the transfer arm out a little bit so that you can lower the specimen mount into the load lock and then move the transfer arm back in so that the fork slides over the bottom groove on the specimen mount.
    specimen mount  holding tool

    specimen mount holding tool

    sample holding tool

    sample holding tool

  2. Pump down the load lock by pressing the Pump Intro button on the AVC remote box.
  3. Move the specimen stage micrometers to the load sample position. The X and Y axis will be centered under the intro fork but the Z axis will be lowered from the dock position by at least 1 cm.
  4. After the load lock has pumped down (5 bars on the AVC remote plus a few more minutes – the longer you pump the sample, the lower the pressure burst and the less out-gassing you will have) press the  Intro Sample button on the AVC remote and the V1 gate valve will open.
  5. Move the intro arm forward to bring the sample into the vacuum chamber and push it all the way in until it hits the stop. If adjusted properly, the stop will be the correct position for docking the specimen mount.
  6. The specimen mount should be directly above the specimen stage clips.  If not adjust the X and Y on the specimen stage as needed.

    one_inch_sample_puck_above_specimen_stage

    one_inch_sample_puck_above_specimen_stage

  7. Raise the specimen stage Z axis so that the clips slide into the specimen holder bottom groove. You may need to slightly adjust the X Y or rotation (if so equipped) so that the specimen holder snaps into the clips.   Slightly moving the specimen stage rotation or the tilt on the transfer arm can also help the specimen mount to snap down into the clips on the specimen stage as you move the specimen stage Z axis.   If the specimen mount does not snap down with a minimal amount of force, back off and recheck the specimen stage X and Y position.  You do not want to damage any of the three clips on the specimen stage by crushing them. Once the clips have snapped in adjust the Z slightly until there is no gap between the bottom of the specimen holder and the specimen stage.

    one_inch_sample_puck_docking

    one_inch_sample_puck_docking

  8. After the specimen mount is docked to the specimen stage, slowly retract the intro fork until it separates from the specimen holder and then once clear, pull the intro arm all the way out of the chamber. The V1 gate valve will close automatically.

To remove a sample from the system, repeat the above procedure with the exception that the Z axis should be in the dock position so that the intro arm fork mounts to the lower groove of the specimen mount. Once you dock the load lock fork to the specimen mount, drop the Z axis on the specimen stage in order to separate the specimen holder from the specimen stage clips.

When the specimen holder is clear of the specimen stage you can pull the intro arm all the way out of the chamber and V1 will close automatically.

RBD Instruments provides new and used PHI specimen mounts.  We also provide the sample clip assembly. Contact us for more information at 541 330 0723 or visit our website by clicking the image below.

RBD specimen mount part numbers

RBD specimen mount part numbers

 

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Running AugerScan and AugerMap on Windows 7 – 10

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AugerScan and AugerMap are “legacy” software applications originally developed for Windows 95 and 98, however they have been and continue to be updated for bug fixes, additional features, and operating system compatibility. Both applications (and the systems they run) are still going strong and support Windows 7 – 10.

While many customers are still content running their RBD-upgraded PHI systems on Windows XP (or 95-98!), Microsoft no longer supports those operating systems, making upgrading the OS or replacing those PCs inevitable. There are a few areas where the transitions is not as smooth as we’d yet like, and those are driver support and the legacy help system.

Drivers

RBD provides drivers for older Windows XP systems as well as drivers that are fully compatible with Windows 7 – 10. However, none of these drivers are currently digitally signed. Depending on your operating system, providing the rights to run unsigned drivers may be necessary upon installing the drivers and/or running the software.

Some of the errors you may encounter are cryptic, such as the following sometimes seen when installing unsigned drivers on Windows 10: “The hash for the file is not present in the specified catalog file”.

Driver Error

Thanks for the clarity, Microsoft!

 

The good news is that you should only have to take care of the issue once, not every time you are running the software. The bad news is the methods are different for each operating system version, and even different for the same exact operating system depending on the date it was installed and the PC BIOS.

For most versions of Windows, disabling driver signature enforcement can be accomplished easily by one of these methods.

For Windows 10 PCs that were installed (not updated) with build 1607 (Anniversary Edition), the Secure Boot feature of the BIOS must be turned off.

Help

The original Help system (largely unchanged since Windows 3.1) was phased out in Windows Vista. The context-sensitive help – also known as “what’s this?” or “right-click” help cannot be replaced (this was the information you would typically see for each field in a dialog box, for example). However, for Windows Vista through 8.1, Microsoft does provide separate downloads for the legacy help system; it’s just no longer installed in the operating system.

You can find most of those files on this Microsoft support page (scroll down to “Resolution”) For security reasons, Microsoft no longer supports this help format at all in Windows 10, and there are no third-party solutions available.

However, we’ve translated most of RBD’s help to HTML for both AugerScan and AugerMap. In each case, simply  unzip the file to a convenient folder and run “index.html” in your browser.