Replacing the water lines in a 16-050 heat exchanger

In a previous post we showed you how to remove dust from the radiator in a 16-020 or 16-050 X-ray source heat exchanger

For this post we will replace the flow switch, which is used in a 16-050 heat exchanger, and also replace all of the water lines.  The water lines in this particular heat exchanger have become green with contamination from long term corrosion of the fittings and copper X-ray source anode.

We will  remove the motor and pump as part of the hose replacement procedure  and will also clean and lubricate the pump to motor connection.

This procedure will take about 2 hours.   The replacement hose should be clear reinforced braided tubing that is 5/8” OD and 3/8” ID. This type of hose is available from Home Depot, McMaster-Carr, and Grainger. Measure the length of the existing water lines and then add another 10 feet for the16-050 lines.  You may be able to get by with 50 feet but a100 foot roll at Home Depot is only about $50.00.

You will also need 3 gallons of distilled water from a grocery store

First of all, drain as much water as possible out of the water lines. Here is the best way to do that –

Turn OFF the 16-050 OFF and also unplug the power cord from the back of the system. Remove the top cover on the 16-050 and also remove the electrical cover that is located in front left hand corner of the 16-050.

Locate the Crydom Power On relay under the switch cover.

Double check that the power cord to the 16-050 is unplugged.

Move the black output wire from pin one to pin two. Both black output wires should be on pin two.

move wire from here

move wire from here

move wire to here

move wire to here

Remove the quick disconnects from the X-ray source and plug them into the ends of the IN and OUT water lines that connect to the 16-050.  That way, when you turn on the 16-050 one line will have water coming out and the other one will have air going into it.

Plug the 16-050 power cord back in. Hold the water lines over a water tight pail (a plastic garbage container will work well). When you turn the 16-050 switch  back ON, the water will flow out of the end of the water lines.

Turn the switch breaker OFF when the water stops flowing and is mostly spurting air.

(Note, if you have a 16-020 heat exchanger move the Pump power cord to the HV receptacle and the you can control the pump by turning the circuit breaker ON and OFF)

Unplug the 16-050 power cord.

Remove the side covers on the 16-050.

Remove the DI cartridge and water filter. Note the position of the cartridges so that you can replace them in the same locations later.

Remove the pump from the motor (one screw and a clamp) and set it aside. You do not need to disconnect the wires.

Remove the fan (the outer screws in the square metal fan support).

Next, remove the radiator.

Clean the radiator by flushing it with some Alconox or other detergent followed by a thorough rinse out with warm water.

Clean the cooling fins as needed.

Reinstall the radiator

Replace all the water lines one at a time.  Remove a line by unscrewing the hose clamps and twisting the hose off the connector.  If the connector has barbs on it you will need to cut a slit in the hose with a box cutter or utility knife.  Use the old hose section to measure the length of replacement hose then cut the new hose to the same length. Feel free to make the new hoses slightly shorter or longer if that will make it fit better.

Also, to soften the line and make it easier to slide over a barbed connector, dip the line in Acetone for about 20 seconds.  This works quite well.   You could also heat the line with a heat gun on the low heat setting for a few seconds.

When you get to the flow switch,  unscrew the two front panel screws and pull the flow switch away from the fort panel.  If you are going to replace the flow switch, now is the time.  You may need to pull some blanking plugs off of the old flow switch.  Make sure that you put the new flow switch on exactly  the same way that the old one comes off as that is very important for the water flow direction.  Take a picture with your phone before you remove the lines for reference.   Also note the location of the wires in the terminal strip.

Note that the 220VAC version of the flow switch is no longer made and so in a 16-050 you would also need a 220VAC to 120VAC step down transformer. Contact RBD Instruments if you need a replacement flow switch.

Step down transformer mounted in 16-050

Step down transformer mounted in 16-050

terminal strip

terminal strip

16-050 schematic

16-050 schematic

After all of the water lines have been replaced, remove the quick disconnects from the water lines and plug the water lines together.

Reinstall the DI and water filter cartridges.  You should replace both the De-ionizer and filter cartridges if it has been a while (a few years) since the last time you replaced them.  If you replaced the x-ray anode in a 10-610 mono source as part of this maintenance then the deionizer cartridge MUST be replaced. Contact RBD Instruments if you need a deionizer cartridge or water filter.

Reinstall the motor.

Inspect the water pump and clean and lubricate (with grease) as necessary.   The  motor to pump connection can get a lot of debris and some rust accumulation.

Reattach the pump to the motor.

Put one gallon of fresh distilled water (from a grocery store, not lab DI) into the reservoir.

Plug in the 16-050 power cord.

Turn on the 16-050.

Immediately add another gallon of fresh DI water into the resistor as the water will be filling the lines and cartridges.

Check for leaks and tighten hose clamps as needed.

Add more water as needed until the level is correct on the back of the 16-050.  It will take 3 to 3.5 gallons.  Give it some time for the cartridges to fill up, about 10 to 15 minutes before you do a final top off.

If you have replaced the flow switch you can monitor pins 1 to 5 on the Coolant ON/OFF connector with an ohmmeter. With the 16-050 on and water flowing, adjust the potentiometer on the flow switch until the resistance between pins 1 and 5 drops down to 1 ohm or less.

Reconnect the Coolant ON/OFF cable.

Turn off the power to the 16-050 and unplug the power cord from the back of the system.

Confirm that the power cord is unplugged.

Move the wire on the terminal block form pin two back to pin one.

Replace the electrical cover.

Replace the side covers.

Replace the top cover.

Plug the 16-050 back in and turn on the power switch.

The 16-050 should turn on and off when the 32-095/6 is turned off and on.

Turn off the 32-095/6 and then reconnect the water lines to the X-ray source.

Procedure is complete.

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XPS PM Procedure

5400/5500/5600 System XPS PM procedure Preventive Maintenance Guide

This post lists the common tasks that are completed as part of a preventative maintenance on a PHI 5400/5500/5600 XPS X-ray photo electron spectrometer.

XPS PM Procedure – OPTICS

  1. *Discuss System performance and issues with system operator prior to servicing.
  2. *Inspect system, note base vacuum. Test TSP filaments.
  3. *Make sure that you have all necessary parts for the maintenance. If you are missing anything, order it before proceeding. For maximum efficiency, you will perform vacuum maintenance first as you can inspect and clean the electronics during the system bake out and cool down.
  4. *Prepare to vent the system by shutting down all filaments and voltages to the ion guns, X-ray sources and neutralizer.
  5. *Turn off the DIGIII and Boostivac. Let the system cool for 10 minutes.
  6. *While the system is cooling, prepare a work area for optics maintenance.
  7. *Vent the system (make sure that the turbo pump(s) are on to prevent oil vapors from backfilling during the vent process). After the system is up to air, turn off the turbo pump(s).
  8. *Remove the X-ray source(s) from the chamber and inspect the filaments, window, football ceramic and anode. Replace parts as needed.
  9. *Remove the ionizer from the Ion gun and inspect the ionizer. Replace if needed.
  10. *Remove the Ion Gauge and inspect the filaments. Replace if needed.
  11. *Replace TSP filaments as needed.
  12. * If the 04-085/090 Neutralizer filament needs to be replaced, remove the neutralizer and replace the filament. It should be replaced every 4 years of normal usage.
  13. *If channel plates or electron multiplier needs to be replaced, remove the 6″ flange on the SCA and replace the multiplier. This typically is replaced every 3 to 5 years depending on usage.
  14. *Pump down the system.
  15. *Start the ion pumps.
  16. *Prepare the system for bake out – NOTE: Remove the microscope by unscrewing the locking screw. Do not remove the lower portion to make it easier to re-align the microscope after the bake out.
  17. *Once the system reaches at least the mid 10-7 Torr range, then the system can be baked for 12 to 24 hours.




  1. *Make sure the card rack power is off and visually inspect all electronic cards and units.
  2. *Clean all edge connectors with alcohol and q tips (not an eraser).
  3. *Replace as needed any marginal capacitors, resistors or transistors.
  4. *Replace all neon bulbs.
  5. *Replace CM85 bulbs in EMU unit as needed. Note that if the Vacuum Console bulb needs to be replaced that the entire system needs to be shut down first.
  6. *Clean electronic card rack filters.


System Outgas Procedure

  1. *With the card rack power off and all electronic units off as well (except for the ion pumps, DIGIII and turbo pumps), re-connect all system cables.
  2. *Reconnect the microscope.
  3. *Load the slotted silver sample into the system.
  4. *Turn on the card rack power and the power to the Ion gun control and X-ray source control.
  5. *Load AugerScan software.
  6. *Turn on the ion gun control and outgas the filament slowly to 25mA and 2 to 3kV. Do not sputter the slotted silver sample at this time.
  7. *Out gas the X-ray source filaments and condition the anodes to 16.5kV slowly.
  8. *Lightly sputter the slotted silver sample.
  9. *Find the focal point of the SCA using the slotted silver sample and align the microscope to that point.
  10. *Load a piece of Cu and AU side by side an calibrate the XPS linearity.





Calibration sequence:

  1. *Calibrate Small Spot on Slotted Silver Sample
  2. Calibrate Au and Cu peak linearity:
    • * Pass Energy Tracking
    • * Au 84.0
    • * Cu 932.67
  3. *Align ion gun to focal point. – Load a piece of TaO5 with an X scribed into it. Put the X at the focal point of the microscope and then burn a hole into the TaO5 with no raster. Adjust the ion source as needed to center the sputter crater in the middle of the X.



Refer to the counts/resolution Specifications for the specific system type that you are testing. In general, if the resolution spec (less than .8eV FWHM on clean silver) can be met then the system will be performing properly in all pass energies.

RBD TechSpot has procedures for all of the above tasks. Simply search for the keyword in the search box at the top of this bog.  For example – XPS alignment

Preventive maintenance

While performing preventive maintenance on an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer recently I was reminded of how important the simple tasks are in preventing problems. On this particular system the card rack air filters were relatively clean and as a result of that, all of the boards in the card rack were dust free and clean. When we inspect the boards as part of a PM visit we often find that some of the components have attracted dust and dirt which in turn can cause arcing and damage on high voltage boards.

Here are some easy preventive maintenance tasks that you can perform yourself which will help to keep your X-ray photo electron, Auger electron spectroscopy or Secondary Ion Mass spectroscopy system running smoothly:

  1. Clean the air filters on a regular basis. Depending on how dusty your lab is, that could mean once a month or once every 6 months.  Be sure to turn the card rack power OFF and the fans OFF before you remove the air filters.
  2. Keep the temperature in the room that your system is located cool at all times. For older surface analysis systems, 68 degrees F (20C) or lower is ideal.  If the room temperature gets up to the mid to upper 70s F you can expect to have more component failures.
  3. Vacuum out the back of the electronics console and the inside of the electronic units the same time that you clean the air filters.
  4. Check the cooling fans in the electronics rack and inside any electronic power supply or control. If the fans are spinning slowly or not at all, replace them. Keeping air moving is very important for older electronics and can help to extend the lifetime of the electronic components inside.

These 4 simple tasks can prevent more serious problems from occurring. Then  hopefully the only maintenance that your system may need will be the occasional replacement of consumable parts such as ionizers, filaments and electron multipliers.

RBD Instruments always performs these simple tasks as part of a PM visit.  If you service your system yourself or have it serviced by another company, always insist that these tasks are performed during the preventative maintenance visit.  The pictures below filters that were removed from a system that had been on service contract with another company. Obviously they had not been cleaned in a long time!

dirty air filters

As the old Fram oil filter commercial in the 80’s said, you can pay me now or you can pay me later. The idea being that if you don’t change your automotive oil filter on a regular basis that it will end up costing you a lot more to fix your engine later. The same thing applies with any piece of expensive equipment. Do the simple preventive maintenance tasks on a regular basis and you will avoid most of the severe time consuming problems.

air filter locations